The solution of Magnesium oxide turns red litmus paper blue. 2. Hydrogen (H2) gas is not evolved when metal is treated with nitric acid (HNO3): An amphoteric substance shows both acidic and basic characters. Atomic number of chlorine = 17 Examples: 3 Reaction with dilute acids . Metal Oxides (iii) Extraction of Metals of High Reactivity: Metals of high reactivity; such as sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, etc. It reacts with base like acid and reacts with an acid like a base. Base + Non-metal oxide ⇨ Salt + Water. 3.1.2 Non-metals In the previous Class you have learnt that there are very few non-metals as compared to metals. Metals react with oxygen to form basic oxides.Zn and Al form amphoteric oxides which show the properties of both acidic and basic oxides.Mostly, metal oxides are insoluble in water. We checked the reactivity of various metals with oxygen, water and acids. When a metal reacts with water, metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas is formed. They dissolve in the water in the clouds to form acidic solutions. Reaction of Sodium with Water (b) For Non-metals: Generally, most non-metals do not react with water but there are some non-metals which are quite reactive in air like phosphorous, which is very reactive and is kept in water to prevent explosion. Chemical Reactions of Metals. Example: Sodium hydroxide gives sodium carbonate and water when it reacts with carbon dioxide. According to new CBSE Exam Pattern, MCQ Questions for Class 10 Science pdf Carries 20 Marks. Since metals react by losing electrons, the easier it is for a metal to lose electrons, the more reactive it is. Sulphur dioxide gives sulphurous acid when dissolved in water. Example: When an electric current is passed through molten state or solution of sodium chloride, sodium metal gets deposited over the cathode. In all the above examples, iron, aluminium and zinc are more reactive than copper. Reaction of metals with dilute acids Iron oxide is brown-red in colour and is known as Rust. Most of the metals do not react with water. Carbon dioxide is acidic in nature. The alkaline earth metals react to form hydrated halides. When they dissolve in water they form acids. In this, impure metal is used as anode and pure metal is used as a cathode. Sulphur catches fire when exposed to air. Created: Nov 17, 2011. Sulphur–Non-metal—does not react with water. Add 20 ml water to the gas jar and test this solution with blue litmus paper. The reaction of Non-metals with oxygen: Non-metals form their oxides when they react with oxygen. Sodium reacts violently with cold water to form sodium hydroxide along with hydrogen gas. Settled impurities in the solution are called Anode Mud. A large amount of heat is evolved in this reaction, which results in hydrogen catching fire. Reaction of magnesium metal with water: Magnesium metal reacts with water slowly and forms magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. The lack of water OA reactions with early transition metal complexes is in part attributable to the preponderance of non-OA reaction pathways with water. The reaction … Extraction of Copper Metal: Copper glance (Cu2S) is roasted in the presence of air. With some metals, the reaction is very fast and vigorous, while with others it may be slow. Sulphur gives sulphur dioxide when reacting with oxygen. Ionic compounds are solid. These do not react with water or dilute acids. Example., Reaction of sulphur with oxygen. The general equation for this reaction is: metal + oxygen → metal oxide. Materials needed: Sulphur, a long-handled spoon or a deflagrating spoon, burner, water, gas jar with a lid, and blue litmus paper. Because alkaline earth metals tend to lose electrons and halogen atoms tend to gain electrons (), the chemical reaction between these groups is the following:\[M + X_2 \rightarrow MX_2\] Silver metal does not react with copper sulphate solution because silver is less reactive than copper and not able to displace copper from its salt solution. Cover the jar partly with the lid while the sulphur is still burning. Duralumin: [95% Al + 4% Cu + 0.5% Mg + 0.5 Mn], Stainless steel: [74% Fe + 18% Cr + 8% Ni], German Silver: [60% Cu + 20% Zn + 20% Ni]. Formation of Sodium Chloride (NaCl): In sodium chloride, sodium is a metal (alkali metal) and chlorine is a non-metal. ; Only some metals react with water. (ii) Sulphide ores are heated in the Presence of oxygen. Reaction with oxygen: Most of the metals form respective metal oxides when reacting with oxygen. This page looks at the reactions of the Group 1 elements - lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium - with water. Extraction of Metals: Metals can be categorised into three parts on the basis of their reactivity: Most reactive, medium reactive and least reactive. Non-metals are the elements that do not conduct electricity and are neither malleable nor ductile. Reaction of non-metals with acid - definition Non metals reacts with acid to produce corresponding acids.For example if nitric acid … Magnesium, on heating, burns in air (oxygen) with a dazzling white light to form magnesium oxide. Other metals usually do not react with water or react very slowly. You could perform the above activity using small pieces of zinc and sodium hydroxide solution (instead of magnesium ribbon and dilute sulphuric acid) to test that hydrogen is evolved in the reaction. All the alkali metals react vigorously with halogens to produce salts, the most industrially important of which are NaCl and KCl. 27.1 Reaction between Mg and dil HCl 3. How was the water formed? Nitrogen combines with hydrogen in presence of an iron catalyst to form covalent hydride ammonia. Compounds so formed are known as Ionic Compounds. So, ores found in the form of sulphide and carbonates are first converted to their oxides by the process of roasting and calcination. When a clean piece of the sample is placed near hot steam, a white substance starts to appear on the surface of the sample. Reaction of aluminium metal with water: Reaction of aluminium metal with cold water is too slow to come into … Different acids and metals react to form different salts. Advertisement: Also See : CBSE Class 10 Science Syllabus 2019-2020 Session Element: Is a substance that can’t be broken into more simpler substances. Metal + Oxygen → Metal Oxide 4K + O 2 → 2K 2 O Metals give hydrogen gas when they react with dilute acid. Sodium chloride is formed because of transfer of electrons. As a result, iron objects become weak with the passage of time. Chemical Properties of Metals Non-metals: The reactions of non-metals with bases are complex. Read more. Reaction of metals with solution of other metal salts: Reaction of metals with the solution of other metal salt is displacement reaction. Non-metal + Oxygen → Non-metallic oxide Finally the class can decide to which solutions bromine water should be added to complete this displacement series for non-metals. Iodine is non-metal which is lustrous having a shining surface. After loss of one electron, sodium gets one positive charge (+) and chlorine gets one negative charge after gain of one electron. NCERT Solutions for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. The heavier a metal gets, the slower and more difficult thereaction. The general reaction results in a salt and hydrogen gas. Thus, in order to obtain stable configuration, sodium transfers one electron to chlorine. Potassium is at the top of the series and hence, most reactive. Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity with the exception of graphite which is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Lead, copper, silver and gold do not react with steam. Alkali metal oxides give strong base when dissolved in water. You will learn about them in higher classes. Al + NaOH (Sodium hydroxide) → NaAlO2 (Sodium aluminate) + H2 (Hydrogen) Reaction of Sodium metal with Water: Sodium metal forms sodium hydroxide and liberates hydrogen gas along with lot of heat when reacting with water. For example, They form negative ions and are good oxidising agents. The phenomenon is called Rusting of Iron. This method is used in the laboratory to produce hydrogen gas. It is harder than the constituent metals. from mines ore is known as Concentration of Ores. Only a few, like aluminium, zinc, and lead, react with solutions of strong bases like sodium hydroxide to produce a compound of that metal and hydrogen gas. Reaction of Magnesium metal with Water: Magnesium metal reacts with water slowly and forms magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Impurities present in metal are settled near the bottom of anode in the solution. Conclusion: The gas produced in the reaction is hydrogen. Less active metals react with boiling water. Earth’s crust is the major source of metal. Reaction of Zinc with dilute sulphuric acid: Zinc sulphate and hydrogen gas are formed when zinc reacts with dilute sulphuric acid. This is also known as Corrosion of Iron. The general reaction for alkali metal hydrides and water is given below: Reaction of Metal with Water Metals + Water Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen Example Sodium + Water Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrogen (Na) (H2O) (NaOH) (H2) Reaction of Non-Metal with Water Non Metal + Water No Reaction Example Sulphur + Water No Reaction. Generally non-metals do not react with water. These impurities are called gangue. Non metals reacts with acid to produce corresponding acids.For example if nitric acid reacts with sulfur ,sulphuric acid is formed. Some metals like sodium and potassium react vigorously with oxygen. Zinc gives hydrogen gas along with zinc chloride when it reacts with hydrochloric acid. The order of reactivity of metal towards dilute hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid is in the order; The electrical conductivity of alloys is lower than the constituent metals. When sulphur starts burning, lower the spoon into the gas jar. Thus, metals are known as Electropositive Elements. 2Al + 6HCl (Hydrochloric acid) → 2AlCl3 (Aluminium Chloride) + 3H2 (Hydrogen). Zinc spar is put under calcination to be converted into zinc oxide. Observing Acid-Metal Reactions. Alkali metals react vigorously with oxygen. Metal A + Salt Solution of metal B → Salt Solution of metal A + metal B Question: A sample of a silvery unknown metal is thought to be either magnesium or silver. Impure lump of metal is connected with the positive pole and thin strip of pure metal is connected with negative pole. Aim: To show that hydrogen is produced when magnesium reacts with dilute sulphuric acid Materials needed: Magnesium ribbon, dilute sulphuric acid, test tube, dropper, and a matchstick Method: Observation: Bringing a burning matchstick nearthe mouth ofthe test tube produces a ‘pop’ sound. Reaction with water: Non-metals do not react with water. 3. Write a general word equation for this reaction. A large amount of heat is evolved in this reaction, which results in hydrogen catching fire. A more active metal will react more readily with water than a less active metal. Reaction of Non-metals with Oxygen: Non-metals form respective oxide when reacting with oxygen. 1. Ores which are mined often contain many impurities. The reaction of metals and non-metals with dilute acid. Carbonate or sulphide ores of metals are first converted into respective oxides and then oxides are reduced to respective metals. such as joints in railway tracks. As a result, the metal gets eaten up. In this, the ore is heated in the presence of air to convert it into oxide compound. The solution of non-metal oxides turns blue litmus red. copper sulphate + water CuSO 4 + H 2 O + copper oxide + sulphuric acid CuO + H 2 SO 4 + water H 2 O + + + MgCl 2 magnesium chloride magnesium oxide hydrochloric acid MgO 2HCl + + + 18. Because of the loss of one electron, one positive charge comes over sodium. Most of the metals are refined using electrolytic refining. Mercury oxide so obtained is again heated strongly. 2Na + 2H 2 O → 2NaOH + H 2 . All of these metals react vigorously or even explosively with cold water. 2. Reaction with Oxygen Metals: Most metals combine with oxygen to form metal oxides. Non-metals generally occur in all the three forms of matter- solid, liquid and gases. Not all metals react with water. Info. 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Valence electrons = Electrons in outermost orbit = 1 They are the least reactive. Reactivity of elements decreases on moving from top to bottom in the given reactivity series. Examples : Reaction of non metals with water: Non metals do not react with water as to react, they need to displace hydrogen and for displacing, they need to donate electrons to hydrogen but it is not possible as they are themselves electron acceptors. Updated: Aug 24, 2018. ppt, 149 KB. Created: Nov 17, 2011. Thus, the order of reactivity of different metals towards water may be written as : Roasting turns copper glance (ore of copper) into copper (l) oxide. Non-metals are usually non … The compounds are white solids, which dissolve in water to give a colorless solution. Mg + H 2 O ⇨ MgO + H 2. Reaction of Magnesium metal with dilute hydrochloric acid: Magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas are formed when magnesium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid. Carbon and sulfur both form dioxides with oxygen, but this is not true of all non-metals. In other words, bond formed between positive and negative ion is called Ionic Bond. Some examples are given below : Articles made of iron, such as grills, fencing, etc. SO2 + H2O → Sulphurous acid (H2SO3), The reaction of carbon with oxygen—When carbon is burnt in air, it forms carbon dioxide. Ionic compounds do not conduct electricity in the solid state. Whenever sodium or potassium is exposed to air it catches fire. Electrons in outermost orbit = 7 Conversion of Concentrated Ore into Crude Metal Non-metals do not react with dilute acids. MgO + H2O → Mg(OH)2 (Magnesium Hydroxide). Non-metallic Oxide: Non-metallic oxides are acidic in nature. �Noble Gases Non-ferrous alloys: An alloy does not contain iron. Free. MO + H 2 O → M(OH) 2 (where M = group 2 metal) Thus, these compounds are often called basic oxides. acid → Metal salt + Hydrogen. In the reaction, copper is more reactive than silver and hence, displaces silver from silver nitrate solution. Therefore, valence electrons = ? Bring a burning matchstick near the mouth of the test tube. Not all metals react this way, but many do. Reaction is given below – Na + H 2 O NaOH + H 2. A metal will only react with a salt solution if it is placed higher in the activity series than the metal in the salt. These metals cannot be reduced using carbon because carbon is less reactive than them. The chemical reactivity of metals varies widely. With late metals, OA of water is thermodynamically rather difficult and many of the known examples display reversibility. Sulphur + Oxygen (O2) → SO2 (Sulphur dioxide), The solution of sulphur dioxide turns blue litmus paper red. Displacement Reaction: When a more reactive metal reacts with the salt solution of less reactive metal, more reactive metal displaces the less reactive metal from its solution. Similarly, when gold is dipped in the solution of copper nitrate, no reaction takes place because copper is more reactive than gold. Gold is alloyed with a small amount of silver or copper to make it hard. Iron (Fe) + Water (H2O) + Oxygen (O2) → Fe3O4n.H2O (Iron II, III) Oxide (Rust) Corrosion Iron and many other metals react with oxygen and moisture present in the atmosphere… Corrosion Iron and many other metals react with oxygen and moisture present in the atmosphere. Non-metals cannot displace hydrogen from dilute acids. Reaction of Sodium oxide with Water: Sodium oxide gives sodium hydroxide when reacts with water. Metal + Oxygen → Metal oxide from a lump of impure metal. Metals produce ringing sound on striking which is called their sonorous property. Some metals react with water to form metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. �Metalloids 4. Chemical Properties: Metal oxides are basic in nature. Take a piece of magnesium ribbon in the test tube. The non-metal and oxygen gas (O 2) are the reactants in this type of reaction, and a non-metal oxide is the product. Some more examples are discussed below. metals and water. Method: Observation: In test tube A, iron filings turn brown due to the deposition of copper and the solution turns pale green due to the formation of iron sulphate solution. When steam is passed over magnesium metal, magnesium oxide and hydrogen gas are formed. Here we have given NCERT Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals. Metal + Acid → Hydrogen gas + Salt, The reaction of zinc with dilute acid. CBSE Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals Pdf free download is part of Class 10 Science Notes for Quick Revision. 3. Extraction of Mercury Metal: Cinnabar (HgS) is first heated in air. Metal + Acid → Hydrogen gas + Salt. Magnesium + Oxygen (O2) → MgO (Magnesium oxide), Magnesium oxide forms magnesium hydroxide with water. Some metals do not react with acids at all. Electrolytic Refining of Copper: A lump of impure copper metal and a thin strip of pure copper are dipped in the solution of copper sulphate. However, alkali metals react vigorously with water. Similarly, zinc gives sodium zincate and hydrogen gas when it reacts with sodium hydroxide. But most of them do this on ignition. Non-metals:Non-metals do not react with water. 4. You might have to leave the metals that react too slowly until the next lesson; For metals such as calcium that react quickly with water set up the apparatus shown above so that you can collect the hydrogen gas that is given off during the reaction Powerpoint which leads students through discovering the reaction of metal with water. Ionic bond has a greater force of attraction because of which ions attract each other strongly. Powerpoint which leads students through discovering the reaction of metal with water. Preview and details Files included (1) ppt, 149 KB. Phosphorus is a very reactive non-metal element.If phosphorus is kept open in air,it react with the oxygen of air and catches fire.So,in order to protect phosphorus from atmospheric air,it is stored in a bottle containing water. Reaction with Acids: (a) For Metals: This is also known as Thermite Welding (TW). This is why they displace copper from its salt solution. Mg + H 2 O → MgO + H 2 Metal oxides have a high melting point and are solid at room temperature, unlike non-metallic oxides which are usually gases at room temperature (BBC, 2014). Example, Reaction of Iron metal with oxygen When iron reacts with moist air, it forms rust. Calcium also reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide and hydrogen. Metals and Non-metals Class 10 Important Questions Long Answer Type. But when steam is passed over aluminium metal, aluminium oxide and hydrogen gas are produced. Notable examples include alkali metals, sodium through caesium, and alkaline earth metals, magnesium through barium. Ionic compounds conduct electricity in the molten state. Zinc oxide gives zinc chloride and water on reaction with hydrochloric acid. Reaction of metals with water: Metals form respective hydroxide and hydrogen gas when reacting with water. Electronic configuration of chlorine : 2, 8, 7 Reaction of non-metals with water. Aluminium gives hydrogen gas along with aluminium chloride when it reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid. Reaction of Iron with Water: Reaction of iron with cold water is very slow and comes into notice after a long time. Non-metals: Non-metals form acidic oxides with oxygen of air. Number of electrons in outermost orbit = 1 Reaction of aluminium metal with water: Reaction of aluminium metal with cold water is too slow to come into notice. This means magnesium oxide is basic in nature. Extraction of Iron from Haematite (Fe2O3): Haematite ore is heated with carbon to be reduced to iron metal. Metal oxides are basic in nature. Since a chemical reaction between an acid and a metal will produce hydrogen gas, this can be used to determine whether a particular metal has reacted with an acid or not. Cinnabar (HgS) is the ore of mercury. If you have any query regarding NCERT Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest. In this reaction, more reactive metal displaces the less reactive metal from its salt. When iron articles like the gate, grill, fencing, etc. Reaction with O2. Magnesium reacts with sulphuric acid to form magnesium sulphate and hydrogen gas. ) 2 + H 2 from metal to further rusting the absence of even. Hydrogen: non-metals do not react with dilute acid: magnesium chloride, sodium and. And are good oxidising agents dioxide forms sulphurous acid when dissolved in forms... Usually metals ) by liberation of sulphur dioxide the gas jar and test this solution blue... 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