In Morocco, for example, payments of just US$7 a month per child helped reduce child labor rates by one third. Despite the reported decline in child labor from 1995 to 2000, it remains a major concern. Overall, the effects of active labour market interventions, such as public works programmes to generate employment opportunities, or business trainings to Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://laborcenter.uiowa.edu/special-projects/child-labor-public-education-project/about-child-labor/causes-child-labor, (PDF) Socioeconomic impacts of child labour – ResearchGate. Awkward posture and heavy physical work were associated with musculoskeletal pain, while monotonous work, awkward posture and noise were associated with back pain.23 A study in Nicaragua, which focused on children working in agriculture, reported that child labor in agriculture poses a serious threat to children’s health; specifically, acute pesticides poisoning.24, A study conducted in India reported that the prevalence of eyestrain in child laborers was 25.9%, which was significantly more than the 12.4% prevalence in a comparison group. Since 2000, governments have increased the number of children in school by 110 million, making it much less likely those children will end up in the labor market. (2011, July 13). Age, gender, school enrollment, working hours, child vaccination, protection at labor, type of job, Work-related injury or illness, symptoms of work-related injury or illness, Age, sex, education, types of child labor, time spent at work, age they started working, the reasons for entering the labor force, parents age, marital status, level of education, employment status, religion, and type of family. A lot of these barriers affect individuals of all ages; however, youth in Canada are the ones at the most significant risk from being affected [...]. First, we acknowledge that all systematic reviews are subject to publication bias. In 2016, it was estimated that ~150 million children under the age of 14 are engaged in labor worldwide, with most of them working under circumstances that denies them a playful childhood and jeopardize their health.7 Most working children are 11–14 years, but around 60 million are 5–11 years old.7 There are no exact numbers of the distribution of child labor globally; however, available statistics show that 96% of child workers are in Africa, Asia and Latin America.1. Bandeali S, Jawad A, Azmatullah A et al. Peer problems were most prevalent, followed by problems of conduct.30 A study from Ethiopia31 reported that emotional and behavioral disorders are more common among working children. Most of the studies adjusted for the daily working hours. Research conducted in the UK, because of adverse outcomes in children, resulted in acts for child labor in 18 02.3 Many countries followed the UK, in recognition of the associated health risks. For decades, child labor has been an important global issue associated with inadequate educational opportunities, poverty and gender inequality.1 Not all types of work carried out by children are considered child labor. Girls who were younger than 12 years, had no formal education, worked for more than 8 h/day, or had two or more jobs were more likely to experience sexual assault.34. literature review on . Large number of children are unpaid workers in their own family businesses, many of which depend on their family’s labor to survive. Two authors reviewed the titles obtained, a.o. 1.1 Background of the study Child labour is a significant social problem growing in the world today. With the renewed interest in child labour as an economic and social problem, researchers have attempted to assess its linkages to the core elements of human capital, hoping to solve continuing riddles in development policy and improve the quality of life for the world¿s … Under the government's close supervision, this needs to stop happening. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.unicef.org/sowc07/docs/sowc07_panel_3_3.pdf, Progress Slows in Ending Child Labor. (2017, September 19). Yet 215 million are in child labour as a matter of survival. Under this assumption of a deduction in child labour both in the informal and formal economy, can leads to a demand for more schooling, which is not automatic (Galli,2001). The ILO took its first stance in 1973 by setting the minimum age for work.4 Nevertheless, the ILO and other international organizations that target the issue failed to achieve goals. In 1932, the year M.P was born, the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression and just a few years away from the start of World War II. Younger children were more likely to suffer from backaches and other health problems (infection, burns and lung diseases), while probability of reporting tiredness/exhaustion was greater in the oldest age group. Keywords: Literature review, Mountain, Child, Wellbeing, Poverty, Health, Nutrition, Education, Child mortality, Child labour/child labor Significance The review compares literature from across disciplines and geographical locations to look at the effect on children of growing up in a mountainous environment. In total, 24 studies were conducted in one country; one study included data from the Living Standard Measurement Study of 83 LMIC.8. Of these 250 million, 61% are in Asia, 32% in Africa and 7% are in Latin America (Sharma and Bhatia,2009). Coping efficacy of working non-schooled children was lower than that of the other groups.29. CHILD LABOR: A REVIEW* by Christiaan Grootaert and Ravi Kanbur Contents: 1. Banerjee SR, Bharati P, Vasulu TS et al. Child labor and health: a systematic literature review of the impacts of child labor on child’s health in low- and middle-income countries Abdalla Ibrahim1, Salma M. Abdalla2, Mohammed Jafer1,3, Jihad Abdelgadir4,5, Nanne de Vries1 1CAPHRI, Faculty of Health, Medicine, and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands and World Bank in terms of international labour standards and human rights conventions. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259528740_Impact_of_Life_Expectancy_on_Economics_Growth_and_Health_Care_Expenditures_A_Case_of_Bangladesh, (PDF) The Economic Impact of Child Labour – researchgate.net. The Nature and Magnitude of Child Labor 3. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Ending child labor will not only be protecting children and their families, but will also strengthen communities and build economies. Diss. the literature showing that health shocks can enhance child labour). Galli continues speaking that more schooling means higher human capital, in turn leading to higher a more efficient labor market and a higher productivity. This is an issue for most developing countries, it would also be necessary for the states to make sure schools are in good quality, and the curriculum would need to be ideal for attendees. In the early industrialization years on the United States the child labor increase and become a more common issue, and by the early decades of the twentieth century it decrease. Poverty, I must say here, is the root cause for many social ills, (Ndienla,2006). “No to child labour is our stance. Retrieved November 8, 2018, from https://www.ilo.org/moscow/areas-of-work/child-labour/WCMS_248984/lang–en/index.htm, The University of Iowa Labor Center. A study concerned with child abuse in Bangladesh reported that the prevalence of abuse and child exploitation was widespread. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. *The quality is based on the percentage of Downs and Black10 tool, < 50% = poor, 50–75% = fair, > 75% = good. Non-working school children had a better performance on the SDQ scale. On PubMed, we added […AND (poverty OR ‘low income’ OR ‘developing countries’)] to increase the specificity of results; otherwise, the search results were ~60 times more, with the majority of studies being irrelevant. Malnutrition and poor growth were reported to be highly prevalent among working children. Studies that met the following criteria were considered eligible: sample age 18 years or less; study was conducted in LMICs; and quantitative data was reported. The first third of the algorithm was assigned to titles/abstracts to ensure relevance of the studies retrieved, while the rest of the terms were not. However, another study in Ethiopia28 reported a lower prevalence of mental/behavioral disorders in child laborers compared to non-working children. The extraction form was piloted to ensure standardization of data collection. Child, Community, Development, Economic Growth, Employment, Family, Institution, Life, Parenting, Poverty, Child, Family, Grief, Homelessness, Poverty, Single Parent, Violence, Affordable Housing, Child, Economy, Family, Homelessness, Poverty, Social Issues, Employment, Homelessness, Justice, Poverty, United States, Wealth, Welfare, Child Care, Employment, Gender Roles, Inequality, Poverty, Sexism, Welfare, Child, Family, Health Care, Poverty, Poverty Reduction, Sibling, Social Inequality, Tough Life’s Obstacles of Homeless People, OhmyNews(Korea).(n.d. When this standard definition of work is applied, child labor appears much more common among boys than among girls in most countries. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.academia.edu/7118550/CHILD_LABOR_and_its_Socio-Economic_Impact, Child Labor. Didn't find the paper that you were looking for? Two authors extracted the data using a standardized data extraction form. Concerning mental and psychosocial health, the outcomes documented included abuse with its different forms, coping efficacy, emotional disturbances, mood and anxiety disorders. If children do not have the opportunity to attend school, they will never escape poverty and never achieve upward social mobility. ).EncyclopediaofSocialMovementMedia.doi:10.4135/9781412979313.n163, Why do we still have Child Labour?-New Lanark. In total, 12 studies compared outcomes between working children and a control group (Table 1). Technical Report, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). However one must make a distinction between child labour and exploitation of child labour. 16 students ordered this very topic and got original papers. States could increase their capital by educating their labor force, through specialization, improving infrastructures and creating competition (Galli,2001). India and Child Labor India is a developing country, according to the CIA’s The World Fact Book (2011). The Human Rights Watch reports that child labor rates are dropping, but not fast enough. If housework where included in this definition of child labor, there would be a significant increase in the work activity among young girls. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263275832_Socioeconomic_impacts_of_child_labou, How well GDP measures the well-being of society. Unstable housing is one of the major contributing factors, as to why [...], Homelessness is a problem that can be seen when looking just below the surface of the many social problems our country has. Previous reviews have described different adverse health impacts of child labor. Concerns about the use of child labor in West African cocoa production became widespread in the early 2000s in many high-income countries. With children working full-time jobs it has a negative impact on school attendance. Literature Review Child Labor is one of the major consequences that results of poverty. Authors reported that the prevalence of pain in the neck, knee, wrist or hands, and upper back exceeded 15%. Our editors will help you fix any mistakes and get an A+! Abstracts of papers retained were reviewed, and subsequently full studies were assessed for inclusion criteria. This should be alarming to organizations that set child labor as a target. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/macroeconomics/macro-economic-indicators-and-the-business-cycle/macro-limitations-of-gdp/a/how-well-gdp-measures-the-well-being-of-society-cnx, Shah, P. (n.d.). Working children are subjected to different risk factors, and the impacts of child labor are usually not limited to one illness. As an example, the 1991 census of India reports that 56.6% of 5 to 14-year-old boys were in school, 5.2% were participants in economic activities, 0.5% were marginal workers, and 37.7% were nowhere. Search was restricted to publications from year 1997 onwards. So more than a third of boys, and one out of two Indian girls did not attend school in 1991; at the same time, they were not considered as child laborers. Children’s Manifest Anxiety Questionnaire, the Hopelessness Scale, and the Self-Esteem Inventory, Social life and habits, nutritional habits, recent complaints (last 2 weeks), chronic illnesses, health during the last year, anxiety, hopelessness, self-esteem, Age, gender, working lives, workplace characteristics, family income, family status including number of siblings and parents, Physical, emotional and sexual abuse, as well as physical neglect, Developing countries according to the WB classification, Gender, adult mortality rate for men, adult mortality rate for women, percentage of the population below the poverty line, percentage of adults infected with HIV/AIDS, percentage of the population undernourished, percentage of children aged 10–14 years who were workers (child labor prevalence), The mortality rate among boys aged 10–14 years, the mortality rate among girls aged 10–14 years, and the percentage of the population aged 10–14 years undernourished, Age, gender, employment duration, working hours, Age, duration of employment, working hours per day, reasons for working, Systematic symptoms including respiratory, GIT, Musculoskeletal, skin and CNS symptoms, Eye strain and repeated injury, Physical health (respiratory morbidities), Age, sex, daily working hours, and duration of exposure, X-ray, Respiratory morbidities (TB, Hilar gland enlargement/calcification), Copyright © 2021 Faculty of Public Health. Becker suggests that cash transfer programs could be a major benefit; this would provide poor families with a guaranteed monthly income and relieve the pressure parents may feel to send their child to work. Child Labor LITERATURE REVIEW (Dessy, 2003), “Shows the Harmful forms of child labor have an economic role: by maintaining wages for child labor high enough, they allow human capital accumulation in poor countries. Even though there is a spike in women working, why is it that women represent the highest proportion of the population in poverty? The impact of economic exploitation on the health and welfare of children, Child Labour: A Textbook for University Students, Childhood and child labour in the British industrial revolution, The millennium project: a plan for meeting the millennium development goals, Policy: sustainable development goals for people and planet, The health impact of child labor in developing countries: evidence from cross-country data, The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: a systematic review and meta-analysis, The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions, Street children in Pakistan: a situational analysis of social conditions and nutritional status, Effect of child labour on growth of children, Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh, Work-related injuries with child labor in Iran, Child labor in a rural Egyptian community: an epidemiological study, Health of children working in small urban industrial shops, Evidence on the impact of child labor on child health in Indonesia, 1993–2000, Health status of working children in Jordan: comparison between working and nonworking children at schools and industrial sites, Morbidity profile of child labor at gem polishing units of Jaipur, India, Relative risk and prevalence of illness related to child labor in a rural block, Child labor and musculoskeletal disorders: the Pelotas (Brazil) epidemiological survey, Child labor and acute pesticide poisoning in Nicaragua: failure to comply with children’s rights, Eyestrain in working children of footwear making units of Agra, India, Respiratory morbidities among working children of gem polishing industries, India, Prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among street and labour children in Tehran, Iran, Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in Ethiopia, The psychosocial impact of child labour in Jordan: a national study, Prevalence of behavioural and psychological problems in working children, The prevalence of mental health problems in Ethiopian child laborers, Child abuse among working children in rural Bangladesh: prevalence and determinants, Abuse of working children and influencing factors, Turkey, Child labor and sexual assault among girls in Maiduguri, Nigeria, Height and weight as a reflection of the nutritional situation of school-aged children working and living in the streets of Jakarta, Psychosocial impacts of child work: a framework for research, monitoring and intervention. 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